Why Americans are Sheeples:
American Patriot Friends Network
To Whom It May Concern:
I, Oliver Kenneth Goff was a member of the Communist
Party and the Young Communist League, from May 2, 1936 to October
9, 1939. During this period of time, I operated under the alias
of John Keats and the number 18-B-2. My testimony before the
Government is incorporated in Volume 9 of the Un-American Activities
Report for the year 1939.
While a member of the Communist Party, I attended
Communist underground training schools outside the City of New
York: In the Bues Hall, and 113 East Wells Street, Milwaukee,
Wisconsin. The East Wells Street School operated under the name
of the Eugene Debs School. Here, under the tutoring of Eugene
Dennis, M. Sparks, Morris Childs, Jack Kling and others, we were
schooled in the art of revolutionary overthrow of the established
We were trained on how to dismantle and assemble
mimeograph machines, to use for propaganda purposes during the
revolution; how to work on guide wires and fuel lines of airplanes
so that they would either burst into flames or crash to the ground
because of lack of control; how to work on ties and rails to
wreck trains; and also the art of poisoning water supplies.
We discussed quite throughly the fluoridation
of water supplies and how we were using it in Russia as a tranquilizer
in the prison camps. The leaders of our school felt that if it
could be induced into the American water supply, it would bring-about
a spirit of lethargy in the nation; where it would keep the general
public docile during a steady encroachment of Communism. We also
discussed the fact that keeping a store of deadly fluoride near
the water reservoir would be advantageous during the time of
the revolution, as it would give us opportunity to dump this
poison into the water supply and either kill off the populace
or threaten them with liquidation, so that they would surrender
to obtain fresh water.
We discussed in these schools, the complete
art of revolution: the seizure of the main utilities, such as
light, power, gas, and water; but it was felt by the leadership,
that if a program of fluoridating of the water could be carried
out in the nation, it would go a long way toward the advancement
of the revolution.
The above statements are true.
/s/ Oliver Kenneth Goff
STATE OF COLORADO )
) S5 COUNTY OF ARAPAHOE )
OLIVER KENNETH GOFF, being first duly sworn
upon his oath, deposes and says that he has the above and foregoing
instrument and knows the contents thereof, and that the same
are true of his own knowledge except as to those matters stated
on the information and belief as to those he believes them to
(SEAL) subscribed and sworn to before me this
22rd day of June A.D., 1957.
The above information was faxed to APFN on Aug.
6, 1993 from ULTRA LIFE From FAX: 618-594-7712. This FAX included
the following page:
FLUORIDE UPDATE. AUGUST 1993
RECENT DISCLOSURES SHOW THE DANGER OF FLUORIDE
AND THE SUPPRESSION OF DAMAGING INFORMATION FROM THE PUBLIC.
FRIDAY MAY 15, 1992, WILLIAM MARCUS, Ph.D,
CHIEF TOXICOLOGIST AND SENIOR ADVISOR AT THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
AGENCY, (EPA) WAS FIRED FOR HIS DISCLOSURES OF HIP FRACTURE,
CARCINOGENIC, AND OTHER HEALTH AND LIFE THREATENING EFFECTS OF
JUNE 3, 1993, NEW JERSEY ASSEMBLYMAN JOHN
V. KELLY, 242 WASHINGTON AVE. NUTLEY, NJ 07110, MADE A STATEMENT
BEFORE THE STATE ASSEMBLY, PARTS OF WHICH ARE HEREIN QUOTED. "WEBSTER'S
DICTIONARY DEFINES SODIUM FLUORIDE AS A COLORLESS CRYSTALLINE,
WATER SOLUBLE, POISONOUS SOLID, USED CHIEFLY IN THE FLUORIDATION
OF WATER, AS AN INSECTICIDE, AND AS A RODENTICIDE. THE NJ HEALTH
DEPT RELEASED A STUDY LAST NOVEMBER SHOWING AREAS WITH FLUORIDATED
WATER SUPPLIES IN NJ HAD FOUR TIMES MORE OSTEOSCAROMA, A RARE
FORM OF BONE CANCER, THAN AREAS NON-FLUORIDATED."
"THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS
RECOMMENDED PRESCIPTION FLUORIDE SUPPLEMENTS FOR CHILDREN--FLUORIDE
DROPS FOR NEW BORNS AND TABLETS FOR OLDER CHILDREN."
"MY OFFICE CONTACTED AMERICAN ACADEMY
OF PEDIATRIC DENTISTRY FOR STUDIES OF SAFETY AND EFFECTIVINESS
OF THESE SUPLEMENTS."
"THEY WERE NOT IN POSSESSION, ADVISED
THESE COULD BE OBTAINED FROM NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF DENTAL RESEARCH
IN WASHINGTON, THEY DID NOT HAVE THEM AND ADVISED THESE STUDIES
ARE IN DOMAIN OF U.S. FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION." FDA
HAS HAD NO DRUG APPLICATION, NO STUDIES SHOWING SAFETY OR EFFECTIVENESS
OF FLUORIDE DROPS OR TABLETS, ACCORDING TO FRANK FAZZARI, CHIEF
OF FDA DRUG COMPLIANCE BRANCH, THESE ARE UNAPPROVED NEW DRUGS.!!!
THESE POISONOUS DRUGS HAVE BEEN PRESCRIBED
FOR OVER 30 YEARS TO MILLIONS OF CHILDREN. IT IS IRRESPONSIBLE
TO PERMIT THESE PRODUCTS TO BE PRESCRIBED TO THE MOST VULNERABLE
SEGMENT OF OUR POPULATION, OUR CHILDREN.
THE UNION REPRESENTING EPA SCIENTISTS HAS
BEEN VERY CRITICAL OF FLUORIDE, CHARGING THAT MANY STUDIES LINKING
FLUORIDE TO A WIDE RANGE OF HEALTH PROBLEMS INCLUDING CANCER,
HIP AND OTHER BONE FRACTURES, ARE SUPPRESSED. ASSEMBLYMAN KELLY
THEN REQUSTED DR. D. KESSLER, COMMISSIONER, FDA IMMEDIATELY REMOVE
THESE FROM THE MARKET, LETTER DATED JUNE 3, 1993. AT THIS DATE
NOTHING HAS BEEN DONE TO STOP THIS NATIONWIDE POISONING.
FOR MORE INFO CONTACT: FRANK FAZZARI AT
FDA 301-295-8073 - DR. WM. MARCUS (301) 972-0707, DR. ROBT. CARTON,
(301) 874-2948 OR (301) 619-2004, FORMER PRESIDENT EPA SCIENTIST
COULD THERE BE A DEEPER, MORE SINISTER REASON
FOR FORCING FLUORIDE ON THE PUBLIC? READ THE NOTORIZED STATEMENT
FROM OLIVER KENNETH GOFF. YOU DECIDE IF FLUORIDATION IS ONE MAJOR
REASON WHY WE ARE A NATION OF "SHEEPLE" AND "COUCH
During the ultra-secret Manhattan Project, a
report was commissioned to assess the effect of fluoride on humans.
That report was classified "secret" for reasons of "national
Extracted from Nexus Magazine, Volume 5, #3
(April-May 1998). PO Box 30, Mapleton Qld 4560 Australia. email@example.com
Telephone: +61 (0)7 5442 9280; Fax: +61 (0)7
5442 9381 From our web page at: http://www.peg.apc.org/~nexus/
Copyright Joel Griffiths
and Chris Bryson 1997
4 West 104th Street, New York, NY 10025, USA
Some 50 years after United States authorities
began adding fluoride to public water supplies to reduce cavities
in children's teeth, recently discovered declassified government
documents are shedding new light on the roots of that still-controversial
public health measure, revealing a surprising connection between
the use of fluoride and the dawning of the nuclear age.
Today, two-thirds of US public drinking water
is fluoridated. Many municipalities still resist the practice,
disbelieving the government's assurances of safety.
Since the days of World War II when the US prevailed
by building the world's first atomic bomb, the nation's public
health leaders have maintained that low doses of fluoride are
safe for people and good for children's teeth.
That safety verdict should now be re-examined
in the light of hundreds of once-secret WWII-era documents obtained
by these reporters [authors Griffiths and Bryson], including
declassified papers of the Manhattan Project-the ultra-secret
US military program that produced the atomic bomb.
Fluoride was the key chemical in atomic bomb
production, according to the documents. Massive quantities-millions
of tons-were essential for the manufacture of bomb-grade uranium
and plutonium for nuclear weapons throughout the Cold War. One
of the most toxic chemicals known, fluoride emerged as the leading
chemical health hazard of the US atomic bomb program, both for
workers and for nearby communities, the documents reveal.
Other revelations include:
- Much of the original proof that fluoride is safe for humans
in low doses was generated by A-bomb program scientists who
had been secretly ordered to provide "evidence useful
in litigation" against defence contractors for fluoride
injury to citizens. The first lawsuits against the American
A-bomb program were not over radiation, but over fluoride damage,
the documents show.
- Human studies were required. Bomb program researchers played
a leading role in the design and implementation of the most
extensive US study of the health effects of fluoridating public
drinking water, conducted in Newburgh, New York, from 1945
to 1955. Then, in a classified operation code-named "Program
F", they secretly gathered and analysed blood and tissue
samples from Newburgh citizens with the cooperation of New
York State Health Department personnel.
- The original, secret version (obtained by these reporters)
of a study published by Program F scientists in the August
1948 Journal of the American Dental Association1 shows
that evidence of adverse health effects from fluoride was censored
by the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)-considered the most
powerful of Cold War agencies-for reasons of "national
- The bomb program's fluoride safety studies were conducted
at the University of Rochester-site of one of the most notorious
human radiation experiments of the Cold War, in which unsuspecting
hospital patients were injected with toxic doses of radioactive
plutonium. The fluoride studies were conducted with the same
ethical mindset, in which "national security" was
EVIDENCE OF FLUORIDE'S ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS
The US Government's conflict of interest and
its motive to prove fluoride safe in the furious debate over
water fluoridation since the 1950s has only now been made clear
to the general public, let alone to civilian researchers, health
professionals and journalists. The declassified documents resonate
with a growing body of scientific evidence and a chorus of questions
about the health effects of fluoride in the environment.
Human exposure to fluoride has mushroomed since
World War II, due not only to fluoridated water and toothpaste
but to environmental pollution by major industries, from aluminium
to pesticides, where fluoride is a critical industrial chemical
as well as a waste by-product.
The impact can be seen literally in the smiles
of our children. Large numbers (up to 80 per cent in some cities)
of young Americans now have dental fluorosis, the first visible
sign of excessive fluoride exposure according to the US National
Research Council. (The signs are whitish flecks or spots, particularly
on the front teeth, or dark spots or stripes in more severe cases.)
Less known to the public is that fluoride also
accumulates in bones. "The teeth are windows to what's happening
in the bones," explained Paul Connett, Professor of Chemistry
at St Lawrence University, New York, to these reporters. In recent
years, paediatric bone specialists have expressed alarm about
an increase in stress fractures among young people in the US.
Connett and other scientists are concerned that fluoride-linked
to bone damage in studies since the 1930s-may be a contributing
The declassified documents add urgency: much
of the original 'proof ' that low-dose fluoride is safe for children's
bones came from US bomb program scientists, according to this
Now, researchers who have reviewed these declassified
documents fear that Cold War national security considerations
may have prevented objective scientific evaluation of vital public
health questions concerning fluoride.
"Information was buried," concludes
Dr Phyllis Mullenix, former head of toxicology at Forsyth Dental
Center in Boston and now a critic of fluoridation. Animal studies
which Mullenix and co-workers conducted at Forsyth in the early
1990s indicated that fluoride was a powerful central nervous
system (CNS) toxin and might adversely affect human brain functioning
even at low doses. (New epidemiological evidence from China adds
support, showing a correlation between low-dose fluoride exposure
and diminished IQ in children.) Mullenix's results were published
in 1995 in a reputable peer-reviewed scientific journal.2
During her investigation, Mullenix was astonished
to discover there had been virtually no previous US studies of
fluoride's effects on the human brain. Then, her application
for a grant to continue her CNS research was turned down by the
US National Institutes of Health (NIH), when an NIH panel flatly
told her that "fluoride does not have central nervous system
Declassified documents of the US atomic bomb
program indicate otherwise. A Manhattan Project memorandum of
29 April 1944 states: "Clinical evidence suggests that uranium
hexafluoride may have a rather marked central nervous system
effect... It seems most likely that the F [code for fluoride]
component rather than the T [code for uranium] is the causative
factor." The memo, from a captain in the medical corps,
is stamped SECRET and is addressed to Colonel Stafford Warren,
head of the Manhattan Project's Medical Section. Colonel Warren
is asked to approve a program of animal research on CNS effects. "Since
work with these compounds is essential, it will be necessary
to know in advance what mental effects may occur after exposure...
This is important not only to protect a given individual, but
also to prevent a confused workman from injuring others by improperly
performing his duties."
On the same day, Colonel Warren approved the
CNS research program. This was in 1944, at the height of World
War II and the US nation's race to build the world's first atomic
For research on fluoride's CNS effects to be
approved at such a momentous time, the supporting evidence set
forth in the proposal forwarded along with the memo must have
been persuasive. The proposal, however, is missing from the files
at the US National Archives. "If you find the memos but
the document they refer to is missing, it's probably still classified," said
Charles Reeves, chief librarian at the Atlanta branch of the
US National Archives and Records Administration where the memos
were found. Similarly, no results of the Manhattan Project's
fluoride CNS research could be found in the files.
After reviewing the memos, Mullenix declared
herself "flabbergasted". "How could I be told
by NIH that fluoride has no central nervous system effects, when
these documents were sitting there all the time?" She reasons
that the Manhattan Project did do fluoride CNS studies: "That
kind of warning, that fluoride workers might be a danger to the
bomb program by improperly performing their duties-I can't imagine
that would be ignored." But she suggests that the results
were buried because of the difficult legal and public relations
problems they might create for the government.
The author of the 1944 CNS research proposal
attached to the 29 April memo was Dr Harold C. Hodge-at the time,
chief of fluoride toxicology studies for the University of Rochester
division of the Manhattan Project.
Nearly 50 years later at the Forsyth Dental
Center in Boston, Dr Mullenix was introduced to a gently ambling
elderly man, brought in to serve as a consultant on her CNS research.
This man was Harold C. Hodge. By then, Hodge had achieved status
emeritus as a world authority on fluoride safety. "But even
though he was supposed to be helping me," said Mullenix, "he
never once mentioned the CNS work he had done for the Manhattan
The "black hole" in fluoride CNS research
since the days of the Manhattan Project is unacceptable to Mullenix
who refuses to abandon the issue. "There is so much fluoride
exposure now, and we simply do not know what it is doing. You
can't just walk away from this."
Dr. Antonio Noronha, an NIH scientific
review advisor familiar with Dr Mullenix's grant request, told
us that her proposal was rejected by a scientific peer-review
group. He termed her claim of institutional bias against fluoride
CNS research "far-fetched". He then added: "We
strive very hard at NIH to make sure politics does not enter
THE NEW JERSEY FLUORIDE POLLUTION INCIDENT
The documentary trail begins at the height of
World War II, in 1944, when a severe pollution incident occurred
downwind of the E.I. DuPont de Nemours Company chemical factory
in Deepwater, New Jersey. The factory was then producing millions
of pounds of fluoride for the Manhattan Project whose scientists
were racing to produce the world's first atomic bomb.
The farms downwind in Gloucester and Salem counties
were famous for their high-quality produce. Their peaches went
directly to the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City; their
tomatoes were bought up by Campbell's Soup.
But in the summer of 1944 the farmers began
reporting that their crops were blighted: "Something is
burning up the peach crops around here." They said that
poultry died after an all-night thunderstorm, and that farm workers
who ate produce they'd picked would sometimes vomit all night
and into the next day.
"I remember our horses looked sick and
were too stiff to work," Mildred Giordano, a teenager at
the time, told these reporters. Some cows were so crippled that
they could not stand up; they could only graze by crawling on
The account was confirmed in taped interviews
with Philip Sadtler (shortly before he died), of Sadtler Laboratories
of Philadelphia, one of the nation's oldest chemical consulting
firms. Sadtler had personally conducted the initial investigation
of the damage.
Although the farmers did not know it, the attention
of the Manhattan Project and the federal government was rivetted
on the New Jersey incident, according to once-secret documents
obtained by these reporters.
A memo, dated 27 August 1945, from Manhattan
Project chief Major-General Leslie R. Groves to the Commanding
General of Army Service Forces at the Pentagon, concerns the
investigation of crop damage at Lower Penns Neck, New Jersey.
It states: "At the request of the Secretary of War, the
Department of Agriculture has agreed to cooperate in investigating
complaints of crop damage attributed...to fumes from a plant
operated in connection with the Manhattan Project."
After the war's end, Dr Harold C. Hodge, the
Manhattan Project's chief of fluoride toxicology studies, worriedly
wrote in a secret memo (1 March 1946) to his boss, Colonel Stafford
L. Warren, chief of the Medical Section, about "problems
associated with the question of fluoride contamination of the
atmosphere in a certain section of New Jersey".
"There seem to be four distinct (though related) problems:
"1. A question of injury of the peach crop in 1944.
"2. A report of extraordinary fluoride content of vegetables
grown in this area.
"3. A report of abnormally high fluoride content in the
blood of human individuals residing in this area.
4. A report raising the question of serious poisoning of horses
and cattle in this area."
FLUORIDE DAMAGE: THE FIRST LAWSUITS
The New Jersey farmers waited until the war
was over before suing DuPont and the Manhattan Project for fluoride
damage-reportedly the first lawsuits against the US atomic bomb
program. Although seemingly trivial, the lawsuits shook the government,
the secret documents reveal.
Under the personal direction of Major-General
Groves, secret meetings were convened in Washington, with compulsory
attendance by scores of scientists and officials from the US
War Department, the Manhattan Project, the Food and Drug Administration,
the Agriculture and Justice departments, the US Army's Chemical
Warfare Service and Edgewood Arsenal, the Bureau of Standards,
as well as lawyers from DuPont. Declassified memos of the meetings
reveal a secret mobilisation of the full forces of the government
to defeat the New Jersey farmers.
In a memo (2 May 1946) copied to General Groves,
Manhattan Project Lt Colonel Cooper B. Rhodes notes that these
agencies "are making scientific investigations to obtain
evidence which may be used to protect the interest of the Government
at the trial of the suits brought by owners of peach orchards
Regarding these lawsuits, General Groves wrote
to the Chairman of the Senate Special Committee on Atomic Energy
in a memo of 28 February 1946, advising that "the Department
of Justice is cooperating in the defense of these suits".
Why the national security emergency over a few
lawsuits by New Jersey farmers? In 1946 the United States began
full-scale production of atomic bombs. No other nation had yet
tested a nuclear weapon, and the A-bomb was seen as crucial for
US leadership of the postwar world. The New Jersey fluoride lawsuits
were a serious roadblock to that strategy. "The specter
of endless lawsuits haunted the military," wrote Lansing
Lamont in Day of Trinity, his acclaimed book about the first
atomic bomb test.3
"If the farmers won, it would open the
door to further suits which might impede the bomb program's ability
to use fluoride," commented Jacqueline Kittrell, a Tennessee
public interest lawyer who examined the declassified fluoride
documents. (Kittrell specialises in nuclear-related litigation
and has represented plaintiffs in several human radiation experiment
cases.) "The reports of human injury were especially threatening
because of the potential for enormous settlements-not to mention
the PR problem," she added.
Indeed, DuPont was particularly concerned about
the "possible psychologic reaction" to the New Jersey
pollution incident, according to a secret Manhattan Project memo
of 1 March 1946. Facing a threat from the Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) to embargo the region's produce because of "high fluoride
content", DuPont dispatched its lawyers to the FDA offices
in Washington, DC, where an agitated meeting ensued. According
to a memo sent next day to General Groves, DuPont's lawyer argued
that "in view of the pending suits...any action by the Food
and Drug Administration...would have a serious effect on the
DuPont Company and would create a bad public relations situation".
After the meeting adjourned, Manhattan Project Captain John Davies
approached the FDA's Food Division chief and "impressed
upon Dr White the substantial interest which the Government had
in claims which might arise as a result of action which might
be taken by the Food and Drug Administration".
There was no embargo. Instead, according to
General Groves' memo of 27 August 1946, new tests for fluoride
in the New Jersey area were to be conducted not by the Department
of Agriculture but by the US Army's Chemical Warfare Service
(CWS)-because "work done by the Chemical Warfare Service
would carry the greatest weight as evidence if...lawsuits are
started by the complainants".
Meanwhile, the public relations problem remained
unresolved: local citizens were in a panic about fluoride. The
farmers' spokesman, Willard B. Kille, was personally invited
to dine with General Groves (then known as "the man who
built the atomic bomb") at his office at the War Department
on 26 March 1946. Although diagnosed by his doctor as having
fluoride poisoning, Kille departed the luncheon convinced of
the government's good faith. Next day he wrote to the general,
expressing his wish that the other farmers could have been present
so that "they too could come away with the feeling that
their interests in this particular matter were being safeguarded
by men of the very highest type whose integrity they could not
A broader solution to the public relations problem
was suggested by Manhattan Project chief fluoride toxicologist
Harold C. Hodge in a second secret memo (1 May 1946) to Medical
Section chief Colonel Warren: "Would there be any use in
making attempts to counteract the local fear of fluoride on the
part of residents of Salem and Gloucester counties through lectures
on F toxicology and perhaps the usefulness of F in tooth health?" Such
lectures were indeed given, not only to New Jersey citizens but
to the rest of the nation throughout the Cold War.
The New Jersey farmers' lawsuits were ultimately
stymied by the government's refusal to reveal the key piece of
information that would have settled the case: how much fluoride
DuPont had vented into the atmosphere during the war. "Disclosure
would be injurious to the military security of the United States," Manhattan
Project Major C. A. Taney, Jr, had written in a memo soon after
the war's end (24 September 1945).
The farmers were pacified with token financial
settlements, according to interviews with descendants still living
in the area.
"All we knew is that DuPont released some
chemical that burned up all the peach trees around here," recalled
Angelo Giordano whose father James was one of the original plaintiffs. "The
trees were no good after that, so we had to give up on the peaches." Their
horses and cows acted and walked stiffly, recalled his sister
Mildred. "Could any of that have been the fluoride?" she
asked. (The symptoms she detailed are cardinal signs of fluoride
toxicity, according to veterinary toxicologists.) The Giordano
family has also been plagued by bone and joint problems, Mildred
added. Recalling the settlement received by the family, Angelo
Giordano told these reporters that his father said he "got
The farmers were stonewalled in their search
for information about fluoride's effects on their health, and
their complaints have long since been forgotten. But they unknowingly
left their imprint on history: their complaints of injury to
their health reverberated through the corridors of power in Washington
and triggered intensive, secret, bomb program research on the
health effects of fluoride.
"PROGRAM F": SECRET FLUORIDE RESEARCH
A secret memo (2 May 1946) to General Groves
from Manhattan Project Lt Colonel Rhodes states: "Because
of complaints that animals and humans have been injured by hydrogen
fluoride fumes in [the New Jersey] area, although there are no
pending suits involving such claims, the University of Rochester
is conducting experiments to determine the toxic effect of fluoride."
Much of the proof of fluoride's alleged safety
in low doses rests on the postwar work done at the University
of Rochester in anticipation of lawsuits against the bomb program
for human injury.
For the top-secret Manhattan Project to delegate
fluoride safety studies to the University of Rochester was not
surprising. During WWII the US Federal Government became involved
for the first time in large-scale funding of scientific research
at government-owned labs and private colleges. Those early spending
priorities were shaped by the nation's often-secret military
The prestigious upstate New York college in
particular had housed a key wartime division of the Manhattan
Project to study the health effects of the new "special
materials" such as uranium, plutonium, beryllium and fluoride
which were being used in making the atomic bomb. That work continued
after the war, with millions of dollars flowing from the Manhattan
Project and its successor organisation, the Atomic Energy Commission
(AEC). (Indeed, the bomb left an indelible imprint on all of
US science in the late 1940s and 1950s. Up to 90 per cent of
all federal funds for university research came from either the
Department of Defense or the AEC in this period, according to
Noam Chomsky in his 1997 book, The Cold War and the University.4)
The University of Rochester Medical School became
a revolving door for senior bomb-program scientists. The postwar
faculty included Stafford Warren, the top medical officer of
the Manhattan Project, and Harold C. Hodge, chief of fluoride
research for the bomb program.
But this marriage of military secrecy and medical
science bore deformed offspring. The University of Rochester's
classified fluoride studies, code-named "Program F",
were started during the war and continued up until the early
1950s. They were conducted at its Atomic Energy Project (AEP),
a top-secret facility funded by the AEC and housed at Strong
Memorial Hospital. It was there that one of the most notorious
human radiation experiments of the Cold War took place, in which
unsuspecting hospital patients were injected with toxic doses
of radioactive plutonium. Revelation of this experiment-in a
Pulitzer Prize winning account by Eileen Welsome-led to a 1995
US presidential investigation and a multimillion-dollar cash
settlement for victims.
Program F was not about children's teeth. It
grew directly out of litigation against the bomb program, and
its main purpose was to furnish scientific ammunition which the
government and its nuclear contractors could use to defeat lawsuits
for human injury. Program F's director was none other than Dr
Harold C. Hodge- who led the Manhattan Project investigation
of alleged human injury in the New Jersey fluoride pollution
Program F's purpose is spelled out in a classified
1948 report. It reads: "To supply evidence useful in the
litigation arising from an alleged loss of a fruit crop several
years ago, a number of problems have been opened. Since excessive
blood-fluoride levels were reported in human residents of the
same area, our principal effort has been devoted to describing
the relationship of blood fluorides to toxic effects."
The litigation referred to and the claims of
human injury were of course against the bomb program and its
contractors. Thus the purpose of Program F was to obtain evidence
useful in litigation against the bomb program. The research was
being conducted by the defendants.
The potential conflict of interest is clear.
If lower dose ranges were found hazardous by Program F, this
might have opened the bomb program and its contractors to public
outcry and lawsuits for injury to human health.
Lawyer Jacqueline Kittrell commented further: "This
and other documents indicate that the University of Rochester's
fluoride research grew out of the New Jersey lawsuits and was
performed in anticipation of lawsuits against the bomb program
for human injury. Studies undertaken for litigation purposes
by the defendants would not be considered scientifically acceptable
today because of their inherent bias to prove the chemical safe."
Unfortunately, much of the proof of fluoride's
safety rests on the work performed by Program F scientists at
the University of Rochester. During the postwar period, that
university emerged as the leading academic centre for establishing
the safety of fluoride as well as its effectiveness in reducing
tooth decay, according to Rochester Dental School spokesperson
William H. Bowen, MD. The key figure in this research, Bowen
said, was Dr Harold C. Hodge-who also became a leading national
proponent of fluoridating public drinking water.
THE A-BOMB AND WATER FLUORIDATION
Program F's interest in water fluoridation was
not just "to counteract the local fear of fluoride on the
part of residents", as Hodge had earlier written to Colonel
Warren. The bomb program required human studies of fluoride's
effects, just as it needed human studies of plutonium's effects.
Adding fluoride to public water supplies provided one opportunity.
Bomb-program scientists played a prominent,
if unpublicised, role in the nation's first-planned water fluoridation
experiment in Newburgh, New York. The Newburgh Demonstration
Project is considered the most extensive study of the health
effects of fluoridation, supplying much of the evidence that
low doses are allegedly safe for children's bones and good for
Planning began in 1943 with the appointment
of a special New York State Health Department committee to study
the advisability of adding fluoride to Newburgh's drinking water.
The chairman of the committee was, again, Dr Harold C. Hodge,
then chief of fluoride toxicity studies for the Manhattan Project.
Subsequent members of the committee included Henry L. Barnett,
a captain in the Project's Medical Section, and John W. Fertig,
in 1944 with the Office of Scientific Research and Development-the
super-secret Pentagon group which sired the Manhattan Project.
Their military affiliations were kept secret. Hodge was described
as a pharmacologist, Barnett as a paediatrician. Placed in charge
of the Newburgh project was David B. Ast, chief dental officer
of the New York State Health Department. Ast had participated
in a key secret wartime conference on fluoride, held by the Manhattan
Project in January 1944, and later worked with Dr Hodge on the
Project's investigation of human injury in the New Jersey incident,
according to once-secret memos.
The committee recommended that Newburgh be fluoridated.
It selected the types of medical studies to be done, and it also "provided
expert guidance" for the duration of the experiment.
The key question to be answered was: "Are
there any cumulative effects, beneficial or otherwise, on tissues
and organs other than the teeth, of long-continued ingestion
of such small concentrations?" According to the declassified
documents, this was also key information sought by the bomb program.
In fact, the program would require "long-continued" exposure
of workers and communities to fluoride throughout the Cold War.
In May 1945, Newburgh's water was fluoridated,
and over the next 10 years its residents were studied by the
New York State Health Department.
In tandem, Program F conducted its own secret
studies, focusing on the amounts of fluoride Newburgh citizens
retained in their blood and tissues-information called for by
the bomb program in connection with litigation. "Possible
toxic effects of fluoride were in the forefront of consideration," the
advisory committee stated. Health department personnel cooperated,
shipping blood and placenta samples to the Program F team at
the University of Rochester. The samples were collected by Dr
David B. Overton, the department's chief of paediatric studies
The final report of the Newburgh Demonstration
Project, published in 1956 in the Journal of the American Dental
Association,5 concluded that "small
concentrations" of fluoride were safe for US citizens. The
biological proof, "based on work performed...at the University
of Rochester Atomic Energy Project", was delivered by Dr
Today, news that scientists from the A-bomb
program secretly shaped and guided the Newburgh fluoridation
experiment and studied the citizens' blood and tissue samples
is greeted with incredulity.
"I'm shocked...beyond words," said
present-day Newburgh Mayor Audrey Carey, commenting on these
reporters' findings. "It reminds me of the Tuskegee experiment
that was done on syphilis patients down in Alabama."
As a child in the early 1950s, Mayor Carey was
taken to the old Newburgh firehouse on Broadway which housed
the public health clinic. There, doctors from the Newburgh fluoridation
project studied her teeth, and a peculiar fusion of two fingerbones
on her left hand which she's had since birth. (Carey said that
her granddaughter has white dental-fluorosis marks on her front
Mayor Carey wants answers from the government
about the secret history of fluoride and the Newburgh fluoridation
experiment. "I absolutely want to pursue it," she said. "It
is appalling to do any kind of experimentation and study without
people's knowledge and permission."
When contacted by these reporters, the now 95-year-old
David B. Ast, former director of the Newburgh experiment, said
he was unaware that Manhattan Project scientists were involved. "If
I had known, I would have been certainly investigating why, and
what the connection was," he said. Did he know that blood
and placenta samples from Newburgh were being sent to bomb-program
researchers at the University of Rochester? "I was not aware
of it," Ast replied. Did he recall participating in the
Manhattan Project's secret wartime conference on fluoride in
January 1944, or going to New Jersey with Dr Hodge to investigate
human injury in the DuPont case, as secret memos state? He told
these reporters he had no recollection of any such events.
Bob Loeb, a spokesperson for the University
of Rochester Medical Center, confirmed that blood and tissue
samples from Newburgh had been tested by the University's Dr
Hodge. On the ethics of secretly studying US citizens to obtain
information useful in litigation against the A-bomb program,
he said: "That's a question we cannot answer." He referred
inquiries to the US Department of Energy (DOE), successor to
the Atomic Energy Commission.
Jayne Brady, a spokesperson for the Department
of Energy in Washington confirmed that a review of DOE files
indicated that a "significant reason" for fluoride
experiments conducted at the University of Rochester after the
war was "impending litigation between the DuPont company
and residents of New Jersey areas". However, she added: "DOE
has found no documents to indicate that fluoride research was
done to protect the Manhattan Project or its contractors from
On Manhattan Project involvement in Newburgh,
Brady stated: "Nothing that we have suggests that the DOE
or predecessor agencies-especially the Manhattan Project-authorised
fluoride experiments to be performed on children in the 1940s."
When told that these reporters have several
documents that directly tie the AEP-the Manhattan Project's successor
agency at the University of Rochester-to the Newburgh experiment,
DOE spokesperson Brady later conceded her study was confined
to "the available universe" of documents.
Two days later, Brady faxed a statement for
clarification. "My search only involved the documents that
we collected as part of our human radiation experiments project;
fluoride was not part of our research effort."
"Most significantly," the statement
continued, "relevant documents may be in a classified collection
at the DOE Oak Ridge National Laboratory, known as the Records
Holding Task Group. This collection consists entirely of classified
documents removed from other files for the purpose of classified
document accountability many years ago [and was] a rich source
of documents for the human radiation experiments projects."
SUPPRESSION OF ADVERSE HEALTH FINDINGS
The crucial question arising from the investigation
is whether adverse health findings from Newburgh and other bomb-program
fluoride studies were suppressed. All AEC-funded studies had
to be declassified before publication in civilian medical and
dental journals. Where are the original classified versions?
The transcript of one of the major secret scientific
conferences of World War II-on "fluoride metabolism"-is
missing from the files of the US National Archives and is "probably
still classified", according to the librarian. Participants
in the January 1944 conference included key figures who promoted
the safety of fluoride and water fluoridation to the public after
the war: Harold Hodge of the Manhattan Project, David B. Ast
of the Newburgh Demonstration Project, and US Public Health Service
dentist H. Trendley Dean, popularly known as "the father
A WWII Manhattan Project classified report (25
July 1944) on water fluoridation is missing from the files of
the University of Rochester Atomic Energy Project, the US National
Archives, and the Nuclear Repository at the University of Tennessee,
Knoxville. The next four numerically consecutive documents are
also missing, while the remainder of the "M-1500 series" is
"Either those documents are still classified,
or they've been 'disappeared' by the government," said Clifford
Honicker, Executive Director of the American Environmental Health
Studies Project in Knoxville, Tennessee, which provided key evidence
in the public exposure and prosecution of US human radiation
Seven pages have been cut out of a 1947 Rochester
bomb project notebook entitled "DuPont Litigation". "Most
unusual," commented the medical school's chief archivist,
Similarly, Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
requests lodged by these reporters over a year ago with the DOE
for hundreds of classified fluoride reports have failed to dislodge
any. "We're behind," explained Amy Rothrock, chief
FOIA officer at Oak Ridge National Laboratories.
So, has information been suppressed? These reporters
made what appears to be the first discovery of the original classified
version of a fluoride safety study by bomb program scientists.
A censored version of this study was later published in the August
1948 Journal of the American Dental Association.6 Comparison
of the secret version with the published version indicates that
the US AEC did censor damaging information on fluoride-to the
point of tragicomedy. This was a study of the dental and physical
health of workers in a factory producing fluoride for the A-bomb
program; it was conducted by a team of dentists from the Manhattan
- The secret version reports that most of the
men had no teeth left. The published version reports only that
the men had fewer cavities.
- The secret version says the men had to wear
rubber boots because the fluoride fumes disintegrated the nails
in their shoes. The published version does not mention this.
- The secret version says the fluoride may
have acted similarly on the men's teeth, contributing to their
toothlessness. The published version omits this statement and
concludes that "the men were unusually healthy, judged
from both a medical and dental point of view".
After comparing the secret and published versions
of the censored study, toxicologist Phyllis Mullenix commented: "This
makes me ashamed to be a scientist." Of other Cold War era
fluoride safety studies, she asked: "Were they all done
Asked for comment on the early links of the
Manhattan Project to water fluoridation, Dr Harold Slavkin, Director
of the National Institute for Dental Research-the US agency which
today funds fluoride research-said: "I wasn't aware of any
input from the Atomic Energy Commission." Nevertheless,
he insisted that fluoride's efficacy and safety in the prevention
of dental cavities over the last 50 years is well proved. "The
motivation of a scientist is often different from the outcome," he
reflected. "I do not hold a prejudice about where the knowledge
1. Dale, Peter P., and McCauley, H.
B, "Dental Conditions in Workers Chronically Exposed to
Dilute and Anhydrous Hydrofluoric Acid", Journal of the
American Dental Association, vol. 37, no. 2, August 1948, pp.
131-140. Note that Dale and McCauley were both Manhattan Project
and, later, Program F personnel; they also authored the secret
Manhattan Project paper.
2. Mullenix, Phyllis et al., "Neurotoxicity
of Sodium Fluoride in Rats", Neurotoxicology and Teratology,
vol. 17, no. 2, 1995, pp. 169-177.
3. Lamont, Lansing, Day of Trinity,
Atheneum, New York City, 1965.
4. Chomsky, Noam, The Cold War and
the University, New Press, New York City, 1997 (distributed
by W.W. Norton & Co. Inc., NYC).
5. Hodge, H. C., "Fluoride metabolism:
its significance in water fluoridation", in "Newburgh-Kingston
caries-fluorine study: final report", Journal of the American
Dental Association, vol. 52, March 1956.
6. Dale and McCauley, ibid.
a medical writer based in New York City. He is the author of
a book on radiation hazards that included one of the first
revelations of human radiation experiments, and has contributed
numerous articles to medical journals and popular publications.
who holds a Master's degree in journalism, is an independent
reporter for BBC Radio, ABC-TV and public television in New
York City, and writes for a variety of publications.
The authors wish to thank Clifford Honicker,
Executive Director of the American Environmental Health Studies
Project, Knoxville, TN, for his indispensable archival research.
Copies of 155 pages of supporting documents,
including all the declassified papers referred to in this article,
can be obtained from the following contacts for a small fee to
cover copying and postage:
Australian Fluoridation News, GPO Box 935G, Melbourne, Victoria
3001, phone (03) 9592 5088, fax (03) 9592 4544.
New Zealand Pure Water Association, 278 Dickson Road, Papamoa,
Bay of Plenty, phone (07) 542 0499.
Pure Water Association of the UK, 12 Dennington Lane, Crigglestone,
Wakefield, WF4 3ET, phone 01924 254433, fax 01924 242380.
Waste Not newsletter, 82 Judson Street, Canton, NY 13617, phone
(315) 379 9200, fax (315) 379 0448, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Forward via email@example.com
FLUORIDE: A PROTECTED POLLUTANT
Since 1937, the foreign medical literature has contained hundreds
of articles on the wide variety of troubles that can be caused
by fluorine. The same is true of the veterinary literature in
this country. But none of this appears in our medical literature.
The things that fluorine can do to people are seen every day
everywhere. The trouble is to know which cases are actually caused
by fluorine. http://www.cadvision.com/fluoride/exner.htm
Fluoridation: The Overdosing of America - Fact or Fiction? http://www.icnr.com/FluoridePres/Slide1.html
THE Water FAQ http://www.siouxlan.com:80/water/faq.html
American Dental Association. Fluoridation Facts. Chicago
There are many reported cases of fluorosis, a mottling (dark
brown/gray staining and spotting of teeth) and crumbling of teeth
due to too much flouride placed in municipal water supplies.
A warning to parents of small children: if children eat large
globs of toothpaste while brushing their teeth, stop the habit
immediately, and place small amounts of toothpaste on a child's
toothbrush. Teach the child not to swallow the toothpaste. http://www.its.ilstu.edu/fcs106/fluoride.htm
FLUORIDES AND FLUORIDATION
TIME-RELEASED FLUORIDE FOR OSTEOPOROSIS Report #6190 5/3/94 http://www.wdn.com/mirkin/6190.html
EPA - HYDROGEN FLUORIDE (AND RELATED COMPOUNDS) (1) 7664-39-3
Chronic (long-term) exposure to fluoride at low levels has a
beneficial effect of dental cavity prevention and may also be
useful for the treatment of osteoporosis. Exposure to higher
levels of fluoride through drinking water may cause dental fluorosis
or mottling, while very high exposures through drinking water
or air can result in skeletal fluorosis. http://www.epa.gov/ttn/uatw/hlthef/hydrogen.html
Fluoride the Aging Factor Price information not available. You
can still order this item, and we will request approval of the
price via e-mail prior to shipment. Paperback 2nd edition (June
1986) Health Action Pr; ISBN: 0913571008
Subject: [MC] About Scientific Information! Date: Mon, 3 Aug
1998 23:32:07 -0700 From: "Stephen A. Tueting" firstname.lastname@example.org
Unbelievably fabulous expose on the history and technologies
involved. The ability to transmit from one brain to another is
there. See the medical journal Electroencephalography and Clinical
Neurophysiology, 1996, Suppl. 45. "Continuous Wave-Form
Analysis". It's another piece of deciphering the brains
EEG and translating to a different persons EEG and then writing
it to that brain.
This is a brilliant piece of literature and extremely accurate.
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send Subscribe or UNsubscribe in Subject line: http://www.apfn.org/apfn/apfncont.htm
**COPYRIGHT NOTICE** In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section
107, any copyrighted work in this message is distributed under
fair use without profit or payment to those who have expressed
a prior interest in receiving the included information for non-profit
research and educational purposes only. http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml
TOP FLUORIDE EXPERT APOLOGIZES FOR PUSHING
Fluoridation / Fluoride Toxic Chemicals In Your Water Fluoride
compounds which are put in water (fluoridation), toothpaste and
supplement tablets (including some vitamins) were never tested
for safety before approval. http://www.holisticmed.com/fluoride/
50 Reasons to Oppose Fluoridation
Don't Swallow Your Toothpaste
Shocking News About Fluoride
Fluoride - The Lunatic Drug
Fluoridation status of some countries
FLUORIDE WEB SITES
Fluoride is a corrosive poison
Fluoride ingestion has very little to do with dental health,
it does have a lot to do with disposing of industrial waste and
making people docile and subservient, it also has a lot to do
with MONEY. Clearly, the dental profession would not and HAS
not put itself out of business.
Respected Medical Professionals and Scientists are warning that
water fluoridation has dangerous long-term consequences to health.
Fluoride & the A-Bomb Program During the ultra-secret Manhattan
Project, a report was commissioned to assess the effect of fluoride
on humans. That report was classified "secret" for
reasons of "national security".
Fluoride: An Invisible Killer
"FLUORIDE DANGERS TO THE THYROID" http://www.thyroid.about.com/health/thyroid/library/weekly/
How Fluoride Kills Human Cells
Join The Nationwide Call for Congressional Hearings on Fluoridation